The Sky Reflector-Net © — an interior atrium shaped by a double-curved tensioned cable net clad by perforated metal panels — is an integrated artwork for the Fulton Center in New York City. It represents an artistic, architectural and engineering collaboration between James Carpenter Design Associates, Grimshaw Architects, Arup and Enclos. The Net was commissioned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority Arts for Transit and Urban Design, and the MTA Capital Construction Company.
Enclos provided comprehensive design, engineering and installation services for the Sky Reflector-Net. Light penetrates the atrium through an oculus before being redirected underground, providing subterranean levels with a connection to daylight. The interaction of reflective metal panels with daylight and artificial light at night creates an ethereal, glowing icon for this lower Manhattan transit hub. A full report is available here.
An animated sequence was created by the Advanced Technology Studio of Enclos to educate field crews on installation and safety tactics prior to construction. Photography stills were later added to the animation sequence to show the Net’s realization. You can view the video in its entirety here.
The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) has released “The Roadmap on the Future Needs of Tall Buildings,” in partnership with the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Roadmap identifies priority research topics and gaps in the field of tall buildings, acting as a guide to assist all those concerned with the typology in the necessary planning of future research and funding.
You can download the entire report here.
The Council on Tall Buildings & Urban Habitat (CTBUH) released it’s “Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2013” report yesterday. The report notes a small increase in the total number of tall-building projects completed in 2013.
You can download the full report here.
Materials shape our built environment, with architectural glass playing a dominant role in defining our current cityscapes. But while the attributes of transparency are indispensable in many applications, the formability of architectural glass is limited. As designers continue to search for greater freedom of architectural form, recent advances in molded, composite concrete technologies suggest an opportunity. The question is: to what extent will molded materials shape the built environment of tomorrow?
At the center of the composite discussion today is fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) and their potential for application in the building facade. The advantages are many: an extremely favorable strength-to-weight ratio, highly customizable engineered properties, a resistance to surface cracking (such cracking is a frequent problem with its close material cousin, glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC)), and a higher durability when compared to many traditional building materials (such as environmentally exposed finished metals, which are prone to deterioration from rust and corrosion).
Leading industry professionals are already developing these molded technologies into built realities; prime among them the San Francisco Bay area firm of Kreysler & Associates. Kreysler is currently fabricating the oversized sculpted FRP facade panels for the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) expansion designed by the Norwegian architectural firm Snohetta. Equally strong is interest in the material from academics, including California Polytechnic State University–San Luis Obispo, whose bachelor of architecture program was just ranked first in the nation by DesignIntelligence. Relevant in this regard is the program’s top spot in the “Construction Methods and Material” category, where faculty such as associate professor Mark Cabrinha and assistant professor Jeff Ponitz lead students in materials-based seminars supplementing their studio work.
For the seminar’s final project, five student teams presented projects with a single requirement: develop a process and concept for an FRP facade system. Results varied from panelized systems, grid based designs, cylindrical forms and tessellated patterns. Concepts included both barrier wall and rain screen systems.
“The issues with FRP are compelling,” Cabrinha says. “We use curvature for strength, but how much is enough? How much is coming from the material, and how much is coming from form?”
The review panel included three integrally involved industry professionals to weigh in on the design, constructability and material properties of the student projects: Shawn Gehle, principal and design director at architect Gensler’s Los Angeles office, Dan Green, vice president at national facade contractor Enclos, and Joshua Zabel, director of digital fabrication at Kreysler & Associates. Gehle noted “the range of ideas presented is a great indicator of the material’s potential.” Green offered design and constructability considerations, ranging from the thermal expansion properties of FRP (it’s similar to aluminum), its interaction with adjacent wall systems, and his surprise with the student’s “interest in developing cost effective designs for the future.”
The application of FRP as a building facade material is not without its challenges. There are few examples of the large-scale application of the material in commercial building projects, and a resulting reluctance by many risk-averse building owners to its inclusion in their construction programs. The primary limiting factor has been fire code restrictions, specifically National Fire Protection Association NFPA 285: Standard Fire Test Method for Evaluation of Fire Propagation Characteristics of Exterior Non-Load-Bearing Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components. Recent advancements, however, backed by successful testing — the approval of Kreysler’s SFMOMA project being the most recent example — have opened the door for the widespread adoption of this exiting material in commercial building facade applications.
Glass and reflected light dominate the visual environs of our great cities. As a material, glass remains unique with unusual properties — transparency prominent among them. The challenge lies in the number of choices available to designers, and predicting how the material will look in context under varying light conditions. Reflections on Glass: The Aesthetics of Reflected Light asks the question and offers solutions for: how do designers control the appearance and aesthetic of architectural glass?
Enclos’ Reflections on Glass: The Aesthetics of Reflected Light is an AIA:CES registered course (LU|HSW credit) that meets today’s emerging design complexities by identifying and comparing:
- Performance attributes and considerations of architectural glass (thermal, acoustical, structural, etc.) and how these affect visual quality through reflection, daylighting, glare, optical distortions and surface patterns.
- Strengths and weaknesses of prominent architectural glass applications, including monolithic, laminated and insulated glass units.
- Common causes of optical distortion (roller wave, bowing, edge curl, etc.) and methods to troubleshoot.
- Sustainability issues involved with architectural glass as a building material and construction practices.
About the presenter:
Mic Patterson, LEED AP [BD+C], has made a career study of building facades, participating in the design, fabrication and installation of a remarkably diverse body of novel applications. He founded ASI Advanced Structures Inc in 1991, the firm that pioneered the introduction of advanced facade technology in the US marketplace. Enclos, a leading global curtain wall firm, acquired ASI in 2007. Patterson subsequently participated in the establishment of the Advanced Technology Studio of Enclos, a facade think-tank located in downtown Los Angeles, where he works as the Vice President of Strategic Development. Patterson earned a Masters of Building Science degree from the School of Architecture at the University of Southern California, where he is currently a PhD candidate. He has taught, written extensively and lectured widely on diverse aspects of advanced facade technology. He is the author of "Structural Glass Facades and Enclosures," published by Wiley in 2011.
Additional AIA/CES registered courses by Enclos include:
Curtainwall 101: Introduction to Curtainwall (LU | HSW)
High-Performance Facades: Emerging Trends & Forces Shaping the Building Skin (LU | HSW)
Face Change: Innovation & Rapid Evolution in Building Skin Technology (LU | HSW)